Oceania (english)

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Open menu. Translator Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Linguee Look up words and phrases in comprehensive, reliable bilingual dictionaries and search through billions of online translations. Blog Press Information Linguee Apps. Specialists in privileged access and unique experiences in A si a and Pacific focus o n small a nd medium- si zed [ The External Review brought structural changes such.

Under wa ter site s in Oceania sp an hum an h is tory from [ Venezuela is a tropical country that has geographical characteristics. Asean, Mercosur, Nafta y Pacto Andino fueron los primeros, seguidos de. Asean, Mercosur, Alena and the Andean Pact paved the way, later to be.

On October 22nd the labs informed that the isolated strain corresponded to the one. Nort h Ameri ca and Oceania had th e wid es t coverage [ At that time the Association consisted of 23 sections representing parliaments in Africa, the. Nort h Amer ica an d Oceania s ho wed high l evels [ Vinod [ Vi nod Kumar, [ William Izarra previamente fue el viceministro de Relaciones Exteriores para el.

This ambitious exercise in multimedia creation was further developed between Los datos se presentan en cuadros, una que indica las cifras mundiales y. The data are presented in charts, one each for global. Distributors are established in more than 30 countries. The exhibition has toured several countries in Latin. Fourteen seniorlevel posts are held by women. As for geographical distribution, as of 17 September18 posts at the D-1 level and above were held by nationals of North American.

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oceania (english)

Thank you very much for your vote! You helped to increase the quality of our service. Specialists in privileged access and unique experiences in 22 [ The External Review brought structural changes such [ En la actualidad, las estaciones del [ Venezuela is a tropical country that has geographical characteristics [ Asean, Mercosur, Nafta y Pacto Andino fueron los primeros, seguidos de [ Asean, Mercosur, Alena and the Andean Pact paved the way, later to be [Oceania refers to Australia and to those Pacific islands situated between and including the Hawaiian archipelago and the Marianas Islands in the north, Easter Island in the east, New Zealand in the south, and New Guinea in the west.

These boundaries are essentially ethnological and, in some respects, arbitrary. Although only a few scholars think that there have been significant human interchanges—biological or cultural—between this region and the Americas, the western boundary is anything but sharp.

2020 coronavirus pandemic in Oceania

Prior to the colonial era people of the Marianas and West Carolines seem to have had little or nothing in common with the Ryukyuans to the north, but their past relations with the Philippines are clearly demonstrable in language, culture, and physique. Links between New Guinea and islands west of it are even more evident; in fact, the Moluccas constitute something of a transition zone. Our concern with the physical environment of Oceania is twofold. First of all, we are interested in those environmental features which have had some relevance to the social behavior of peoples with nonmetallic technologies, nonurban settlement patterns, and largely nonscientific ideologies.

For such peoples the presence or absence of mineral deposits, deep harbors, or natural grazing pastures was largely irrelevant, but these very factors did become relevant to native behavior through the intermediacy of alien whites and Asians. For the native Oceanians the region provided a wide range of natural assets as well as a formidable array of liabilities Oliver In Australia, the climate nowhere reached such extremes as to render any large zone entirely uninhabitable.

In fact, the populace tended to concentrate, regardless of climate, in places where natural foods were most abundant, i. The natural foods relied upon by the hunting and gathering peoples included kangaroos, cassowaries, snakes, lizards, turtles, fish, grubs, fruits, roots, seeds—in fact, almost everything the land and water produced that was even conceivably edible.

Moana - Moana Meets the Ocean

But by the same token, local differences in the kinds and quantities of those resources also resulted in the development of some regional differences in other domains of cultural life. Unlike the Australians, other islanders were primarily gardeners; hence the factors of rainfall, topography, and soil were of more immediate importance than direct availability of wild plants and animals.

The islands of Oceania may be divided into several more or less distinctive types in regard to these features. These islands rise from a vast submarine platform which extends outward from Asia. The bold relief and wide,diversity of soil types, coupled with local differences in climate, have produced numerous sharply distinctive natural areas: bleak mountain summits, fern-forested uplands, grassy plateaus and high valleys, magnificent rain forests, scrubby jungles, riverine swamps, foothills, sandy coastal shelves, flat offshore reef islets, etc.

This geographic diversity has contributed to the cultural diversity which is a hallmark of this portion of Oceania. In addition, the proximity to supplies of marine food has served, in some places, to reduce the direct dependence upon soil. Opportunities for formulating and testing hypotheses about human behavior are enhanced by the insular nature of the region, which provides the researcher with laboratorylike controls found in few other regions of the world. In island Oceania wide stretches of ocean or hazardous natural barriers helped to isolate human communities from one another for years or even centuries at a stretch; and the Australians, although in contact with each other, were themselves more or less isolated from the rest of humanity for many thousands of years.

oceania (english)

This reconstruction is, of course, immensely interesting in itself as a chronicle of some fascinating chapters of human history; but its relevance in this article consists of the light it can shed about some of the events whose sequels provide social science with such varied and amenable resources for research.

Skeletal fragments and crude stone artifacts found on Java demonstrate that tool-making hominids inhabited at least the Greater Sunda Islands as early as the first interglacial period, but the oldest human remains yet found in Oceania i.

Since archeology is just beginning in Australia and New Guinea, it is reasonable to anticipate some deepening of their chronologies in due course. But it is interesting and probably indicative that no excavations carried out elsewhere in Oceania have revealed traces of humanity dating back beyond 3, years ago.

It is simply unlikely that much earlier than that there were any boats in the western Pacific capable of reaching such places as Hawaii, New Zealand, or even Fiji.

There may well have been added a few genes and a few culture traits from the Americas, but if such were the case they were relatively late and comparatively insignificant.

There is no demonstrable basis for linking race with intellectual potential, but race—or at least its visible criteria—has some relevance to the student of social behavior in Oceania. Few systematic studies of race have been carried out in Oceania, save in Australia and southeastern Polynesia, and the specialists differ in their interpretations of the findings. On the basis of some marked regional differences in physical features, some specialists posit three separate racial components: a short-statured negroid type; a larger-bodied, lighter-pigmented, more hirsute type reminiscent of the Ainu of northern Japan; and a more slender, dark-skinned, curly-haired type similar to the Veddas of Ceylon.

According to this view, these three types arrived in separate waves —or trickles—and have interbred somewhat, but not homogeneously, during the succeeding millennia. According to another view, the aborigines were of the same race to begin with and have developed their regional differences since arrival on the subcontinent. For the social scientist these contrary views are not without relevance: if the population can be shown to be tri-hybrid in origin, researches will logically focus on explaining the many cultural similarities found throughout the continent and vice versa.

For the rest of Oceania the racial composition is even more complex and variously interpreted. In the first place, although there are many dark brown and even coal black populations within Melanesia, there are also many others no more heavily pigmented than, say, natives of Tahiti or Tonga. Second, this regional division based on somatic criteria has been arbitrarily perpetuated by ethnologists in the cultural sphere. Within Melanesia the range of racial types or subtypes is very wide.

Stature ranges from pygmoid to tall, pigmentation from light copper to jet black, prognathism from absent to pronounced, etc. Some populations look remarkably Australian except for hair formsothers like frizzly-haired Mongoloids, and still others with light pigmentation and high, beaklike noses resemble no other physical types anywhere.

In fact, there is enough ambiguity in the racial data available for Oceania to permit any number of different historical reconstructions including one that posits an American Indian component: Asia, after all, is the ultimate source of Oceanians and Amerindians.Situated in the southeast of the Asia-Pacific region, Oceania, when compared to continental regions, is the smallest in land area and the second smallest in population after Antarctica.

Oceania has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial markets of Australia and New Zealandwhich rank high in quality of life and human development index[6] [7] to the much less developed economies that belong to countries such as Kiribati and Tuvalu[8] while also including medium-sized economies of Pacific islands such as PalauFiji and Tonga.

The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just to the east arrived more than 60, years ago. On his first voyage in the 18th century, James Cookwho later arrived at the highly developed Hawaiian Islandswent to Tahiti and followed the east coast of Australia for the first time. The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania.

In more contemporary times there has been increasing discussion on national flags and a desire by some Oceanians to display their distinguishable and individualistic identity. The term Oceania is used because, unlike the other continental groupings, it is the ocean that links the parts of the region together. In some countries such as Brazil however, Oceania is still regarded as a continent Portuguese: continente in the sense of "one of the parts of the world", and the concept of Australia as a continent does not exist.

Indigenous Australians are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands who migrated from Africa to Asia around 70, years ago [24] and arrived in Australia around 50, years ago.

They reached Tasmania approximately 40, years ago by migrating across a land bridge from the mainland that existed during the last ice age. The original inhabitants of the group of islands now named Melanesia were likely the ancestors of the present-day Papuan -speaking people. Migrating from South-East Asia, they appear to have occupied these islands as far east as the main islands in the Solomon Islands archipelagoincluding Makira and possibly the smaller islands farther to the east.

Particularly along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian peoplewho had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3, years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples.

In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics, languages, and culture among the peoples. Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers.

There are numerous difficulties with conducting archaeological excavations in the islands, due to their size, settlement patterns and storm damage. As a result, much evidence is based on linguistic analysis. The earliest archaeological traces of civilization have been found on the island of Saipandated to BC or slightly before. The ancestors of the Micronesians settled there over 4, years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious culture centered on Yap and Pohnpei.

They became known as the Chamorros. Their language was named after them. The ancient Chamorro left a number of megalithic ruins, including Latte stone. Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the 2nd millennium BCwith inter-island navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.

The Polynesian people are considered to be by linguistic, archaeological and human genetic ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people and tracing Polynesian languages places their prehistoric origins in the Malay Archipelagoand ultimately, in Taiwan.

Between about and BCE speakers of Austronesian languages began spreading from Taiwan into Island South-East Asia[39] [40] [41] as tribes whose natives were thought to have arrived through South China about 8, years ago to the edges of western Micronesia and on into Melanesia. In the archaeological record there are well-defined traces of this expansion which allow the path it took to be followed and dated with some certainty. It is thought that by roughly BC, [42] " Lapita Peoples", so-named after their pottery tradition, appeared in the Bismarck Archipelago of north-west Melanesia.

Easter Islanders claimed that a chief Hotu Matu'a [45] discovered the island in one or two large canoes with his wife and extended family. AroundTahitian explorers discovered and began settling the area. This date range is based on glottochronological calculations and on three radiocarbon dates from charcoal that appears to have been produced during forest clearance activities.Add Oceania to one of your lists below, or create a new one.

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Oceanian Society

Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:. This is a good example of how the word is used. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content.

Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Translations of Oceania in Chinese Traditional. Need a translator? Translator tool. What is the pronunciation of Oceania? Browse ocean. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Word of the Day dig. Blog Heads-ups and wake-up calls! The language of warnings April 15, Read More.

oceania (english)

New Words fearware. April 13, To top. English Translations. Get our free widgets. Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. Dictionary apps. Browse our dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again lost for words.Oceaniacollective name for the islands scattered throughout most of the Pacific Ocean. The term, in its widest sense, embraces the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas.

A more common definition excludes the Ryukyu, Kuril, and Aleutian islands and the Japan archipelago. The most popular usage delimits Oceania further by eliminating IndonesiaTaiwanand the Philippinesbecause the peoples and cultures of those islands are more closely related historically to the Asian mainland.

Oceania then, in its most restricted meaning, includes more than 10, islands, with a total land area excluding Australia, but including Papua New Guinea and New Zealand of approximatelysquare milessquare km. Oceania has traditionally been divided into four parts: Australasia Australia and New ZealandMelanesiaMicronesiaand Polynesia.

As recently as 33, years ago no human beings lived in the region, except in Australasia. Although disagreeing on details, scientists generally support a theory that calls for a Southeast Asian origin of island peoples. By about 12 million islanders lived in Oceania excluding Australiaand many indigenous cultures were revolutionized by intensive contact with non-Oceanic groups who had intruded from various parts of the Western world.

The arts of the region are discussed in several articles; see art and architecture, Oceanic ; music and dance, Oceanic ; and Oceanic literature. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Oceania region, Pacific Ocean. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Football quickly entered Asia and Oceania in the latter half of the 19th century, but, unlike in Europe, it failed to become….

Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Football quickly entered Asia and Oceania in the latter half of the 19th century, but, unlike in Europe, it failed to become a unifying national sport. In Australia it could not dislodge the winter games of Australian rules football codified before soccer and rugby. Except for probable early contact by way of Indonesia, these folktales seem to show little Eurasian influence.

Throughout Oceania headhunting tended to be obscured by cannibalism, but in many islands the importance attached to the head was unmistakable. In parts of Micronesia the head of the slain enemy was paraded about with dancing, which served as an excuse for raising a fee for…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.

Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.Situated in the southeast of the Asia-Pacific region, Oceania, when compared to continental regions, is the smallest in land area and the second smallest in population after Antarctica.

Oceania has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial markets of Australia and New Zealandwhich rank high in quality of life and human development index[6] [7] to the much less developed economies that belong to countries such as Kiribati and Tuvalu[8] while also including medium-sized economies of Pacific islands such as PalauFiji and Tonga.

The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just to the east arrived more than 60, years ago. On his first voyage in the 18th century, James Cookwho later arrived at the highly developed Hawaiian Islandswent to Tahiti and followed the east coast of Australia for the first time. The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania.

In more contemporary times there has been increasing discussion on national flags and a desire by some Oceanians to display their distinguishable and individualistic identity. The term Oceania is used because, unlike the other continental groupings, it is the ocean that links the parts of the region together. In some countries such as Brazil however, Oceania is still regarded as a continent Portuguese: continente in the sense of "one of the parts of the world", and the concept of Australia as a continent does not exist.

Indigenous Australians are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands who migrated from Africa to Asia around 70, years ago [24] and arrived in Australia around 50, years ago. They reached Tasmania approximately 40, years ago by migrating across a land bridge from the mainland that existed during the last ice age.

The original inhabitants of the group of islands now named Melanesia were likely the ancestors of the present-day Papuan -speaking people. Migrating from South-East Asia, they appear to have occupied these islands as far east as the main islands in the Solomon Islands archipelagoincluding Makira and possibly the smaller islands farther to the east.

Particularly along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian peoplewho had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3, years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples.

In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics, languages, and culture among the peoples. Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers.

There are numerous difficulties with conducting archaeological excavations in the islands, due to their size, settlement patterns and storm damage. As a result, much evidence is based on linguistic analysis. The earliest archaeological traces of civilization have been found on the island of Saipandated to BC or slightly before. The ancestors of the Micronesians settled there over 4, years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious culture centered on Yap and Pohnpei.

They became known as the Chamorros. Their language was named after them. The ancient Chamorro left a number of megalithic ruins, including Latte stone. Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the 2nd millennium BCwith inter-island navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.

The Polynesian people are considered to be by linguistic, archaeological and human genetic ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people and tracing Polynesian languages places their prehistoric origins in the Malay Archipelagoand ultimately, in Taiwan.

Between about and BCE speakers of Austronesian languages began spreading from Taiwan into Island South-East Asia[39] [40] [41] as tribes whose natives were thought to have arrived through South China about 8, years ago to the edges of western Micronesia and on into Melanesia.

In the archaeological record there are well-defined traces of this expansion which allow the path it took to be followed and dated with some certainty. It is thought that by roughly BC, [42] " Lapita Peoples", so-named after their pottery tradition, appeared in the Bismarck Archipelago of north-west Melanesia.

Easter Islanders claimed that a chief Hotu Matu'a [45] discovered the island in one or two large canoes with his wife and extended family.

AroundTahitian explorers discovered and began settling the area. This date range is based on glottochronological calculations and on three radiocarbon dates from charcoal that appears to have been produced during forest clearance activities. It is here that James Cook made first contact with an aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal. His expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline of Australia.Heads-ups and wake-up calls!

The language of warnings. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction.

Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:.

This is a good example of how the word is used. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Your browser doesn't support HTML5 audio.

Oceania Cruises

What is the definition of Oceania? Browse occurrence. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Word of the Day dig. Blog Heads-ups and wake-up calls! The language of warnings April 15, Read More.


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