Mikrotik policy routing
Routing is the process of selecting paths across the networks to move packets from one host to another. Let's look at a basic configuration example to illustrate how routing is used to forward packets between two local networks and to the Internet. If we look, for example, at the Router1 routing table, we can see that the router knows only about directly connected networks.
To fix this we need to add a route which tells the router what is the next device in the network to reach the destination. In our example next hop is Router2, so we need to add a route which gateway will point to the Router's 2 connected address:. If we look again at the network diagram, we can clearly see that Router2 has only one point of exit.
It is safe to assume that all other unknown networks should be reached over the link to Router1. The easiest way to do this is by adding a default route : To add default route specify destination 0.
As we have seen from example setup, there are different groups of routes, based on their origin and properties.
Routing Information Base is a database that lists entries for particular network destinations and their gateways address of the next device along the path or simply nexthop.
One such entry in the routing table is called route. By default, all routes are organized in one "main" routing table.
It is possible to make more than one routing table which we will discuss further in this article, but for now, for sake of simplicity, we will consider that there is only one "main" routing table. RIB table contains complete routing information, including static routes and policy routing rules configured by the user, routing information learned from dynamic routing protocols RIP, OSPF, BGP and information about connected networks.
Its purpose is not just to store routes, but also to filter routing information to calculate the best route for each destination prefix, to build and update Forwarding Information Base and to distribute routes between different routing protocols. Connected routes represent the network on which hosts can be directly reached direct attachment to Layer2 broadcast domain. RIB tracks the status of connected routes but does not modify them. For each connected route there is one IP address item such that:.
The preferred source is not used anymore for connected routes. FIB chooses source address based on the out-interface.
This allows making setups that in ROS v6 and older were considered invalid. See examples for more details. A default route is used when the destination cannot be resolved by any other route in the routing table.
If the routing table contains an active default route, then the routing table lookup in this table will never fail. Typically home router routing table contains only connected networks and one default route to forward all outgoing traffic to ISPs gateway:.
To implement some setups, such as load balancing, it might be necessary to use more than one path to a given destination.Bidirectional Forwarding Detection BFD is a low-overhead and short-duration protocol intended to detect faults in the bidirectional path between two forwarding engines, including physical interfaces, sub-interfaces, data link sand to the extent possible the forwarding engines themselves, with potentially very low latency.
It operates independently of media, data protocols and routing protocols. BFD is basically a hello protocol for checking bidirectional neighbor reachability. It provides sub-second link failure detection support. BFD is not routing protocol specific, unlike protocol hello timers or such. Source port is in the range through For interoperability with Cisco make sure to disable echo mode it is enabled on Cisco by defaultsince it's not supported on MT. Jump to: navigationsearch.
Category : Manual. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Manual Discussion. Views Read View source View history. Navigation Main Page Recent changes. This page was last edited on 6 Septemberat The negotiated Control packet transmission interval, multiplied by this variable, will be the Detection Time for the session. The minimum interval between transmitted BFD Control packets that this system would like to use.Policy Based Routing.
On one of these vlans are my computers and on another net are my "webserver". Now have I 2 ISP. I want use one for all vlans and one for the webserver.
Sob Forum Guru. Re: Policy Based Routing Wed Aug 10, pm Maybe your other routing table does not have route to your computer? People who quote full posts should be spanked with ethernet cable. Some exceptions for multi-topic threads may apply.
Not intended as incentive for masochists. Or must I do other settings in the route with activated mangle rule? ZeroByte Forum Guru. When given a spoon, you should not cling to your fork.
The soup will get cold. All other pc's over ISP2. If ISP1 fails than bad luck And connection from all networks to and from webserver restriction are done over firewall rules.Mikrotik Tutorial no. 35 - PBR (Policy Based Routing) based Load Balancing
I have no idea how to achive that Before I get my second ISP everything works fine, but that gives me headache since some time. It should be X tries to reach the server, then the server's replies will not have any route to reach it due to policy routing.
Thank you very much. Such a simple thing and I try it since half a year to get it work. May I ask you if you have time and pleasure to have al look over my filter rules. If there is anything that is not in the right position. Or there is somthing to improve. Only if it makes no circumstances for you My knowledge from networks and mikrotik is unfortunately not so big. The most things are copied togheter.
Im realy happy that you helped me, and that it works again. Thank you. As your filter rules stand right now, your router is accessible from the entire Internet, and that's almost certainly not what you want. Not really looking too deeply to your forwarding policy, since I'm not sure what all behaviors you want enforced, etc.Policy routing is implemented in 3 parts.
The first part is to define the routes and which policies will use those routes. The second part is the routing rules, which will define how the policies apply to certain traffic. The third is to define the actual policies. The first 2 routes will be used by our policies. The third route will be used by any traffic that does not have a policy defined and by traffic from the router itself.
Next, we need to define our routing rules. There are many ways to accomplish this, but what I will show here is the cleanest way I have found to implement a working policy. Finally, we need to define the policies. Policies are implemented in the firewall using Mangle. We will use a couple of examples. In our first example, we will use the following policy:.
All traffic from the Here is the implementation:. The above 2 rules are all that are needed. A common policy is to route certain traffic by type over certain networks. For example, we could implement a policy like the following:. The above 4 rules will implement the policy requirement I stated.
This is not a complete description of all the possible implementations for policy routing, but it will give you a head start in implementing policy routing. This entry was posted on Friday, September 12th, at am and is filed under Mikrotik. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2. You can leave a responseor trackback from your own site. I has use this example to route 2 Clases C on 2 diferent gateways. How can I access now the servers from outside?
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I have 2 WAN lines that connect to the Internet: one connects on ether1 interface, the other connect on ether2 interface, using a Mikrotik router.
Learn more. Asked 5 years, 6 months ago. Active 2 years, 7 months ago. Viewed 26k times. Can anyone help me to fix this problem? RichVel 3, 4 4 gold badges 22 22 silver badges 36 36 bronze badges.
Active Oldest Votes. Mehdi Haghshenas Mehdi Haghshenas 2, 1 1 gold badge 11 11 silver badges 31 31 bronze badges. It would be great to have some explanation of what the actions are doing here - seems like there are 4 actions for each WAN interface.
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If you have multiple ISP connections available, you can use load balancing technique to establish a stable network. You may now ask, why will I use multiple ISP connections? What are the benefits to use multiple ISP connections in my network?
For your satisfaction, the following points are some reasons to use load balancing technique in your network. If these are your current status, it is suggested to configure a load balancing and link redundancy network with multiple gateways. Among these, PBR Policy Based Routing is simple but efficient method to make a stable load balancing and link redundancy network. To configure a load balancing and link redundancy network with Policy Based Routing PBRI am following a network diagram like the below image.
We will now start load balancing and link redundancy configuration in MikroTik Router according to the above network diagram. Complete configuration can be divided into the following five steps.
We will first rename interface name to understand and remember the configuration easily. The following steps will show how to rename MikroTik interface name. DNS is required to resolve domain name to IP address. Firewall is the place where we will create Policy for load balancing and link redundancy.
In Firewall, we will do the following three types of configurations. The local user cannot communicate with the public servers without masquerade NATing configuration. We will now create our desired network groups in Firewall Address List. The following steps will show how to create network groups using Firewall Address List features. Mangle Rule creates policy for Policy Based Routing. As we have two groups, we will create two Mangle Rules to mark two different routing. The following steps will show how to create Mangle Rule to mark routing for incoming packets from LAN interface.
After creating policy using Mangle rule, we will now configure routing based on created policy and pass different groups to different WAN connections. The following steps will show how to create policy based routing in MikroTik Router.
If you face any confusion to follow the above steps properly, watch the following video about MikroTik Load Balancing with Failover using Policy Based Routing. I hope it will reduce your any confusion.
I hope you will now be able to configure a load balancing and link redundancy network with Policy Based Routing. However, if you face any confusion, feel free to discuss in comment or contact with me from Contact page. I will try my best to stay with you. Your name can also be listed here. Have an IT topic? Submit it here to become a System Zone author. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.
Interface List Window. Address List Window.
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Policy Base Routing
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