English grammar basics

Just ask a friend what is the role of prepositions within sentences, or what are the four moods of verbs, and I am sure that you will see a puzzled look on his face. Understanding the basic grammar rules is essential for communicating efficiently, but most of us have forgotten those concepts years ago.

In order to solve this problem we decided to put together all the basic rules on a single page, so that you can use it as a refresher, or print it out for future reference. Sentences are made of two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject is the person or thing that acts or is described in the sentence. The predicate, on the other hand, is that action or description. This is a complete sentence composed of two clauses. There are mainly two types of clauses: independent clauses and subordinate clauses.

Independent clauses act as complete sentences, while subordinate clauses cannot stand alone and need another clause to complete their meaning. For example:. Independent clause example: The boy went to the school. Subordinate clause example: After the boy went to the school…. A group of two or more grammatically linked words that do not have subject and predicate is a phrase.

Example of a complete sentence: The girl is at home, and tomorrow she is going to the amusement park. Example of a clause: The girl is at home Example of a phrase: The girl.

Phrases act like parts of speech inside clauses. That is, they can act as nouns, adjectives, adverbs and so on.

english grammar basics

The function the word serves in a sentence is what makes it whatever part of speech it is. Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the nounthe pronounthe adjectivethe verbthe adverbthe prepositionthe conjunctionand the interjection. We are going to cover them individually below. A noun is a word used to describe a person, place, thing, event, idea, and so on.

english grammar basics

Nouns represent one of the main elements of sentences, along with verbs, adjectives, prepositions and articles. Nouns usually function as subjects or objects within sentences, although they can also act as adjectives and adverbs. Used to describe a unique person or thing, proper nouns always start with a capital letter. Examples include MaryIndiaand Manchester United.

Common nouns are used to describe persons or things in general.

english grammar basics

Examples include girlcountryand team. Nouns that can be perceived through the five senses are called concrete nouns. Examples include ballrainbow and melody. Nouns that cannot be perceived through the five senses are called abstract nouns. Examples include lovecourageand childhood. Countable nouns Countable nouns can be counted. They also have both a singular and a plural form. Examples include toyschildren and books. Examples include sympathylaughter and oxygen.

Collective nouns are used to describe groups of things. Examples include flock, committee and murder. The English language has both regular and irregular plural forms of nouns. The most common case is when you need to add -s to the noun. For example one car and two cars.When it comes to English speaking skills, you should not pay too much attention to grammar rules at first.

However, this does not mean that we should ignore English grammar completely. Needless to say, basic English grammar rules play an important role in learning English, both written and spoken.

(40 Lessons) Basic English Grammar Rules With Example Sentences

Without grammar rules, you can sometimes make yourself understood with short and simple expressions. However, you may fail most of the time with more complicated expressions that require the correct orders or structures of words.

As a beginner, you must know basic English grammar rules, as they show you how to arrange vocabulary and make meaningful expressions. Below is a series of 40 basic English grammar lessons covering most of the English grammar tenses and most-used structures. All the lessons are designed with clear definitions, explanations and forms, followed by lots of examples.

What you really need to do is take advantage of all the English grammar practice through sample sentences — in other words, you must understand how to use each rule and apply it to your daily speech.

Modal verbs. WH - Questions. Question Tags. This, that, these, those. Passive voice.

HAVE BEEN / HAS BEEN / HAD BEEN - Complete English Grammar Lesson with Examples

Comparative and superlative. Relative clause. Countable and uncountable noun. Do or make. So, too, either, neither. Irregular verb. Adverbs of frequency. Reflexive Pronouns. Possessive adjectives and pronouns. Reported speech. Conjunction: and, but, so, because. Structure: too …to …. Structure: such … that …. Structure: so …that.There are hundreds of grammar rules but the basics refer to sentence structure and parts of speechincluding nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions.

You'll have a great foundation for reading and writing if you can answer the question, "What are the basic English grammar rules? Before we dive into English grammar basics, it's best to have an idea of the components within each rule. The basic parts of speech below are the building blocks of every sentence we write. Let's take a look at the most popular players in the game:. A noun names a person, animal, place, thing, quality, idea, activity, or feeling. A noun can be singular, plural, or possessive.

For example:. A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, like "I," "you," or "they. A verb shows action and can be a main verb such as "run" or "sit" or a helping verb such as "were" or "has".

Verbs also indicate tense and sometimes change their form to show past, present, or future tense. You'll also find linking verbswhich link the subject to the rest of the sentence such as "appear" and "seem". An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. Adjectives usually, although not always, come before the noun they're modifying.

It adds meaning by telling which one or what kind, or describing it in other ways. If you ever find yourself wanting to include multiple adjectives in a sentence, here's more on how to order them properly.

An adverb modifies a verb and shares more information about it, including how much, when, where, why, or how. A preposition demonstrates a relationship between nouns or pronouns. They're often used with a noun to indicate location, like "beside," "in," or "on. Note that prepositions must always be followed by a noun or pronoun.

Conjunctions connect two words, phrases, or clauses. Common conjunctions include "and," "but," and "or. Interjections demonstrate emotion. They're typically, though not always, followed by an exclamation point.

Examples include "hurray," "uh-oh," and "alas. Articles are very useful little words. There are two kinds: indefinite articles include "a" and "an" and refer to non-specific nouns. Meanwhile, "the" is a definite article and is used to refer to a specific person, place, thing, or idea. With an understanding of the fine parts that make a study of English grammar possible, let's roll up our sleeves and get into the rules.If English is your second language, let us begin by congratulating you for doing such a great job so far.

For that, you are to be commended. Luckily for you, we have some good news for you right off the bat. One of the first things you should know is that three of the most important components of English grammar are subjects, verbs, and objects.

This is something that English has in common with a lot of other languages. In order to help you understand what subjects, verbs, and objects are, we would like to provide you with one simple example. Each of these is required in order to form a complete idea, also known as a sentence. The subject is the cause of the action, the verb represents the action itself, and the object is the thing the action is being done to.

As we learned a moment ago, verbs represent actions that are being performed. That action could have been performed in the past. That action could be currently underway. Alternatively, it could be that the action is going to be performed in the future.

In addition to subjects, verbs, and objects, there are also parts of speech that modify these, such as adjectives and adverbs. However, an exhaustive exploration of these rules is beyond the scope of this article. The structure of basic sentences is what you should be focused on as a beginner. Learn English in the fastest, easiest and most fun way. Or sign up using Facebook. Connect with Facebook. By clicking Join Now, you agree to our Terms of UsePrivacy Policyand to receive our email communications, which you may opt out at any time.

Your Next Lesson. Learn the most common way to say "thank you". You've finished everything on your pathway. Add a new path? Study Now. Lessons Advanced Lesson Search.It can be complex, difficult and sometimes even boring. Yet, we all keep learning and practicing the English grammar rules.

Because grammar knowledge is essential for communicating in English. Proper English grammar is one of the foundations of language proficiency. In fact, with a few essential grammar tips, you can overcome many of the obstacles that English learners face.

We included plenty of examples below so you can see how these grammar tips work. But if you want even more examples of these tips in action, you can find lots on FluentU. FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks —and turns them into language learning experiences.

FluentU makes it easy to watch and understand native English videos with interactive captions. Tap or click on any word to see what it means, learn how to use it, hear it pronounced and more. FluentU also keeps track of your learning, then suggests videos and examples perfect for you. You may think that capitalizing nouns is a trivial not important grammar rule. For more examples, Towson University has a comprehensive list of words that get capitalized in English.

They are used in different grammatical constructs. I is a pronoun that serves as a subject of a sentence. Me is a pronoun that serves as an object of a sentence. Me is needed when someone else is performing the action. Knowing your subjects and objects will help you use these types of pronouns flawlessly! This is probably the most common mistake on the internet today! Mistakes happen when possessive pronouns are confused with verb contractions, even among native English speakers.

These are grammatical errors.

english grammar basics

This is another case of confusion between pronouns, contractions and, additionally, adverbs. Their is a possessive determiner. When using theiryou indicate that something belongs to them. This fun comic by The Oatmeal provides a few more examples of common errors arising from the confusion between contractions and pronouns. Modal verbs in English serve to indicate likelihood, possibility, obligation and more. The most common examples of modal verbs include canmaymustwill and shall.

Must is the one indicating an obligation or a necessity to do something. The difference between must and have to is subtle.

Both refer to an obligation, but must indicates an opinion or suggestion. Have to is an expression of a more objective obligation coming from an outside force. Must and have to are used interchangeably in casual English. In other words, the verb needs to take a form that matches the subject.

The subject of a sentence can be either singular or plural, which will determine what form the verb takes. For example:. Notice how these sentence elements provide additional information that can be safely removed.Learning English grammar will develop confidence in us to speak and to write in English.

When we speak or write, we use words. We use these words in groups which make sense. Such a group of words is called a sentence. There are many grammar rules in English language. But the basics are in connection with Parts of Speech and sentence structure. Words are the smallest elements of a language. In English language, based on their use and functions, word are mainly categorised to eight parts of speech. They are:.

There is also another small classification called Interjections which are used to express surprise or strong feelings. Hurrah, wow, oh, ah etc are examples of such words. They are grammatically related to other parts of speech. Therefore this word category has not been included in the eight categories of parts of speech mentioned before.

Major portion of the English vocabulary come under the four main classes, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Therefore the words of these four categories are called vocabulary words. Pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and determiners belong to much smaller classes. These words are sometimes called as grammatical words.

A Noun is the word used to express the name of person, place, quality, feeling, idea, or thing. A common noun is the name given to a class of person, thing, or places. Common means shared by all. A Proper noun is a name which refers to a single person, place, or something to make it specific.When it comes to English speaking skills, you should not pay too much attention to grammar rules at first.

However, this does not mean that we should ignore English grammar completely. Needless to say, basic English grammar rules play an important role in learning English, both written and spoken.

English Grammar Basics

Without grammar rules, you can sometimes make yourself understood with short and simple expressions. However, you may fail most of the time with more complicated expressions that require the correct orders or structures of words.

As a beginner, you must know basic English grammar rules, as they show you how to arrange vocabulary and make meaningful expressions. Below is a series of 40 basic English grammar lessons covering most of the English grammar tenses and most-used structures. All the lessons are designed with clear definitions, explanations and forms, followed by lots of examples.

What you really need to do is take advantage of all the English grammar practice through sample sentences — in other words, you must understand how to use each rule and apply it to your daily speech. Modal verbs. WH - Questions. Question Tags. This, that, these, those. Passive voice.

English Grammar

Comparative and superlative. Relative clause. Countable and uncountable noun. Do or make. So, too, either, neither. Irregular verb. Adverbs of frequency. Reflexive Pronouns. Possessive adjectives and pronouns. Reported speech. Conjunction: and, but, so, because. Structure: too …to ….

Structure: such … that ….


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