Atmosphere aerosol alternative
However, manufacturers eliminated the use of CFCs almost 40 years ago when the U. Aerosol products are still available today, but those made or sold in the U. They now use propellants, such as hydrocarbons and compressed gases like nitrous oxide. These propellants do not deplete the ozone layer, but still have a negative effect on a manufacturer's carbon footprint. They contribute to ground level ozone levels because they contain hydrocarbon and compressed gasses, and they emit volatile organic compounds VOC.
So, for an environmentally conscious manufacturer, what can you do? Aerosol packaging is not all bad and many times is the appropriate choice. In some cases, Aerosol cans may be the only choice. We still see a lot of aerosol packaging used with paints, lubricants and other chemicals. If you have to use them, know you can still make a positive impact on the environment. Aerosol packaging options are also tamper resistant and tamper evident so if those safety features are important to you, this is a good option for your product.
We know it can be confusing to know if aerosol packaging is the best option for your product. Can you find a cost-effective alternative or is one even an option for your product? Our packaging specialists will work with you to determine your best solution to lessen the carbon footprint from your product and find a solution that is appealing and accepted by your consumers. Contact us today to get started.
Bottle Packaging. Posted On: September 14, Alternatives to Aerosol Packaging Here are two alternatives to using aerosol sprays in your packaging: Explore an option like our Flairosol spray bottle. This bag-in-bottle container system provides a continuous spray without the need for any kind of propellant gases.
This sprayer delivers environmental benefits, efficiencies, functionality, and remarkable value.The formation of new aerosol particles is a complicated process. Researchers have only recently started to understand this process on a molecular level after instruments able to detect nanometer-scale particles became available.
The human population has altered the composition of atmospheric gas in several ways. Sulfur dioxide from industrial emissions, nitrogen oxides from traffic, and ammonia from agriculture can all affect particle formation after chemical reactions in the atmosphere. These gases can also interact with organic vapors, which originate mainly from forests and vegetation.
The atmosphere contains thousands of different organic compounds, but only a small fraction of them can form and grow particles. Earlier it was thought that new particle formation always requires sulfuric acid, which forms from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide. Later, it was found that certain organic vapors can also form particles. In this study, the researchers found that in continental moderately polluted atmospheres, e.
Nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, decreased the amount of newly formed particles. The results help to understand how new particle formation and the associated climate impact will change if air pollution levels decrease in the future due to stricter emission control. Aerosol particles can affect the climate by scattering solar radiation and by acting as seed particles for cloud droplets. The aerosol-cloud-climate interactions are still associated with large uncertainties in current climate models.
The laboratory experiments leading to these results were conducted at the European Center for Nuclear Research, CERN, in Geneva, which has one of the best laboratory facilities for detailed particle formation studies.
The study was conducted in collaboration between 25 different institutes in 9 different countries. Materials provided by University of Helsinki. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. Story Source: Materials provided by University of Helsinki. Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Andrea C.
Stratospheric aerosol injection
Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Multicomponent new particle formation from sulfuric acid, ammonia, and biogenic vapors. Science Advances; 4 12 : eaau DOI: ScienceDaily, 14 December University of Helsinki.
Atmospheric aerosol formation from biogenic vapors is strongly affected by air pollutants. Retrieved October 11, from www. Environmental Protection Agency. Evidence suggests Some 3 million deaths a year are linked to exposure to outdoor airAtmospheric lidar is a class of instruments that uses laser light to study atmospheric properties from the ground up to the top of the atmosphere.
Such instruments have been used to study, among other, atmospheric gases, aerosols, clouds, and temperature. The basic concepts to study the atmosphere using light were developed before World War II. Synge proposed to study the density of the upper atmosphere using a searchlight beam. This incompatibility was attributed to suspended haze particles. InT. Maiman demonstrated the first functional laser at Hughes Research Laboratories.
The demonstration was a pivotal moment for lidar development. Soon afterwards, engineers at Hughes Aircraft Company developed a laser rangefinder using ruby laser light. Smullin and G. Fiocco used a ruby laser to detect echoes from the Moon. A simplified representation of a lidar set-up is demonstrated in Figure 1.
The transmission unit consists of a laser source, followed by a series of mirrors, and a beam expander which sends the collimated light beam vertically up to the open atmosphere. Part of the transmitted radiation is scattered by atmospheric components i. The backscattered light is driven to an optical analyzer where the optical signal is first spectrally separated, amplified and transformed to an electrical signal.
Finally, the signal is digitized and stored in a computer unit. Lidars have been proven useful for classification of cloud types i. Cloud-base height can be identified by the time difference between the transmittance of the laser pulse to the sky and the detection of the backscattered light by the telescope. The laser beam is always attenuated when it penetrates through the clouds.
However, when a powerful laser e. Another physical parameter that can be retrieved is the cloud phase. When this parameter is zero the backscattered signal is linearly polarizedthe cloud contains liquid spherical droplets. Liquid droplets tend to behave as symmetrical scattering elements, while ice crystals are asymmetrical.Atmosphere Aerosol gives photographers and filmmakers an affordable, safe and convenient way to add haze or fog to a shoot without needing power or carrying heavy equipment.
Quickly and easily spray in a room or still area to add haze or fog to your photos and films. Get the look of fog or haze without the need for power, a fog machine, or fluid. Atmosphere Aerosol is my 1 tool for photography.
I am constantly amazed how it can bring so much extra life to even the most simple of shots. The ease of use as well as the pure magic it brings to a shot makes Atmosphere Aerosol an absolute necessity for me to have at all times!
As a professional toy photographer, using AA helps set moods and environments like no other product can. Very easy and convenient to use. Mist, smoke, clouds, fog, light rays - so many different uses and looks based on the kind of light one uses it in.
Amazing product, great company, wonderful customer service! Highly recommended! If I could give Atmosphere Aerosol 6 stars I would! I love how it makes light seem tangible. It creates mood and dimension to our photos and it is one of the best things that we have in our camera bag.
It works effortless and flawlessly, and our couples love what we create with it. I highly, highly recommend. Buy 3 Cans, Get 1 Free. Search Search. Your Shopping Cart It appears that your cart is currently empty! Smoke or Haze in a Can.Ever since reports on global warming have cited humans as the likely cause of rising temperatures around the world, the debate about how much we're involved has hardly ceased.
The production of carbon emissions, emitted after the combustion of fossil fuels, is most likely why more greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane have become trapped in the Earth's atmosphere. This effect is like a double-edged sword, because while carbon dioxide and methane allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere, they also keep it from bouncing out, raising temperatures slightly across the globe.
Some scientists also warn about the problems associated with global warming and the likely consequences if nothing is done about it. The potential dangers of global warming range from the uncomfortable to the disastrous -- according to reports, an increase in the number of kidney stones is already underway thanks to higher temperatures, whereas rising sea levels, flooding and famine represent the apocalyptic version.
Many agree that the most significant solution to combat global warming is the development of renewable energy. While that may be a long time coming, for the moment, scientists, theorists and experimentalists are thinking up temporary fixes that might help the Earth in the event of an emergency. If temperatures start rising drastically, along with instances of disease, famine and conflict, something may have to be done -- and quickly. Some of the ideas being tossed around have been inspired by a place people often seek when we're outside and it's too hot -- the shade.
A tree, an umbrella, an overhang on a building or anything else that can block the sun's rays from shining directly on us and damaging our skin has proven a simple but effective way to cool down. So this has led some scientists to wonder: What would it be like to block the sun's rays on a much larger scale? Could we actually shade the Earth in some way to lower temperatures?
A few experts have offered up a potential solution -- the atmospheric sun shade. But is it just science fiction, or could it actually work?
The idea of an atmospheric sun shade isn't exactly new. Scientists have suggested a number of different ways to shade the Earth to cool it down over the years. They've ranged from the potentially plausible to the technically monstrous and incredibly expensive. Other designs have been more lightweight. One popular suggestion has been the scattering of aerosols into the atmosphere. To some this might sound like a dangerous thing to do, especially when you think about aerosol cans and their link to air pollution.
But does this mean we'd all have to point cans of hairspray into the sky and spray away? Not exactly. Along with main gases nitrogen and oxygen, the atmosphere has a collection of both solid and liquid particles called aerosols, or particulate matter.Tiny solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere are called aerosols.
Windblown dust, sea salts, volcanic ash, smoke from wildfires, and pollution from factories are all examples of aerosols. Depending upon their size, type, and location, aerosols can either cool the surface, or warm it. They can help clouds to form, or they can inhibit cloud formation.
And if inhaled, some aerosols can be harmful to people's health. Satellite measurements of aerosols, called aerosol optical thickness, are based on the fact that the particles change the way the atmosphere reflects and absorbs visible and infrared light. An optical thickness of less than 0. High aerosol amounts are linked to different process in different places and times of year. High aerosol amounts occur over South America from July through September.
This pattern is due to land clearing and agricultural fires that are widespread across the Amazon Basin and Cerrado regions during the dry season. In other cases, however, aerosol concentrations are not related to fires. For example, from May through August each year, aerosol amounts rise dramatically around the Arabian Peninsula and nearby oceans due to dust storms.
Elevated aerosol amounts nestle at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains in northern India in some months, and linger over eastern China for much of the year.
Aerosol Optical Depth
These elevated aerosol amounts are due to human-produced air pollution. EO Explorer. Show All Maps. Net Primary Productivity. Net Radiation. Sea Surface Temperature. Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly. Snow Cover.
Aerosol Packaging: Facts and Alternatives
Total Rainfall. Water Vapor.The ability of stratospheric aerosols to create a global dimming effect has made them a possible candidate for use in solar radiation management climate engineering projects  to limit the effect and impact of climate change due to rising levels of greenhouse gases.
One study calculated the impact of injecting sulfate particles, or aerosolsevery one to four years into the stratosphere in amounts equal to those lofted by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in but did not address the many technical and political challenges involved in potential solar radiation management SRM efforts.
It has been suggested that the direct delivery of precursors could be achieved using sulfide gases such as dimethyl sulfidesulfur dioxide SO 2carbonyl sulfideor hydrogen sulfide H 2 S.
According to estimates, "one kilogram of well placed sulfur in the stratosphere would roughly offset the warming effect of several hundred thousand kilograms of carbon dioxide. The arguments in favour of this approach in comparison to other possible means of solar radiation management are:.
It is uncertain how effective any solar radiation management technique would be, due to the difficulties modeling their impacts and the complex nature of the global climate system. Certain efficacy issues are specific to stratospheric aerosols.
Climate engineering and solar radiation management in general are controversial,  and pose various problems and risks. However, certain problems are specific to, or more pronounced with stratospheric sulfide injection.
If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5—10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The injection of non-sulfide aerosols like calcite limestone would also have a cooling effect while counteracting ozone depletion and would be expected to reduce other side effects.
Primary aerosol formation, also known as homogeneous aerosol formation, results when gaseous SO 2 combines with oxygen and water to form aqueous sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4. This acidic liquid solution is in the form of a vapor and condenses onto particles of solid matter, either meteoritic in origin or from dust carried from the surface to the stratosphere. Secondary or heterogeneous aerosol formation occurs when H 2 SO 4 vapor condenses onto existing aerosol particles.Atmosphere Aerosol Review (Indoor test)
Existing aerosol particles or droplets also run into each other, creating larger particles or droplets in a process known as coagulation.
Warmer atmospheric temperatures also lead to larger particles. These larger particles would be less effective at scattering sunlight because the peak light scattering is achieved by particles with a diameter of 0. Various techniques have been proposed for delivering the aerosol precursor gases H 2 S and SO 2. Precursor gases such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide have been considered.
Use of gaseous sulfuric acid appears to reduce the problem of aerosol growth. The latitude and distribution of injection locations has been discussed by various authors.
Almost all work to date on stratospheric sulfate injection has been limited to modelling and laboratory work. A Russian team tested aerosol formation in the lower troposphere using helicopters. Ina group based at Harvard University has described a potential field experiment to test the possible damage to stratospheric ozone from stratospheric sulfate injection,  and a first test is scheduled fortaking place in the Tucson desert.
Most of the existing governance of stratospheric sulfate aerosols is from that which is applicable to solar radiation management more broadly. However, some existing legal instruments would be relevant to stratospheric sulfate aerosols specifically. Notably, both solar radiation management and climate change as well as greenhouse gases could satisfy the definition of "air pollution" which the signatories commit to reduce, depending on their actual negative effects.
Full implementation or large scale climate response field tests of stratospheric sulfate aerosols could cause countries to exceed their limits. However, because stratospheric injections would be spread across the globe instead of concentrated in a few nearby countries, and could lead to net reductions in the "air pollution" which the CLRTAP Convention is to reduce, it is uncertain how the convention's Implementation Committee and Executive Body would respond to such event.
The stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosols would cause the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer to be applicable, due to their possible deleterious effects on stratospheric ozone. That treaty generally obligates its Parties to enact policies to control activities which "have or are likely to have adverse effects resulting from modification or likely modification of the ozone layer.
Sulfates are presently not among the prohibited substances.